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Financial accounting is a very critical process in the monetization process of any service. In the telecommunication world, these processes have long been documented, used, and standardized. Cloud computing being a relatively new paradigm, is still undergoing a transition phase. Many new services are being defined and there is still a huge untapped potential to be exploited.

Rating, Charging, and Billing (RCB) are key activities that allows a service provider to fix monetary values for the resources and services it offers, and allows it to bill the customers consuming the services offered.

Problem Statement

Given a general service scenario, how can the key metrics be identified. The identification of measurable metrics is essential for determining a useful pricing function to be attached to the metric. The challenges we are trying to address under this initiative are multi-dimensional. Is it possible to come up with a general enough RCB model that can address the needs of multiple cloud services – IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, and many more that would be defined in the future?

Where is the correct boundary between real-time charging strategy, which could be very resource intensive, versus a periodic strategy which has the risk of over-utilization of resources by the consumers between two cycles? Can a viable middle-path strategy be established for cloud based services. Can pre-paid pricing model be adapted for the cloud?

Simplified workflow



User Data Records
Rating & Charging


  • rule engine and pricing strategies
  • prediction engine and alarming
  • revenue sharing and SLAs
  • usage collectors
  • scalability


  • vBrownBag Talk, OpenStack Summit, Paris, 2014

  • Swiss Open Cloud Day, Bern, 2014

  • CYCLOPS Demo


  • OpenStack Meetup, Winterthur, 2014

Articles and Info

Research publications

Technology transfer

Research Approach

Following the ICCLab research approach



  • icclab-rcb-cyclops[at]dornbirn[dot]zhaw[dot]ch