SPLab Colloquium on Robust Modern API Design

In the second invited talk in our colloquium series in 2018, Alan Sill from Texas Tech University’s Cloud and Autonomic Computing Center shared his views on how to manage data centres the right way. In the talk «Topics in robust modern API design for data center control and scientific applications», many issues were pointed out whose proper solution will effect the whole cloud stack up to the way cloud-native applications are designed and equipped with deep self-management capabilities. Both the talk and the mixed-in debates are captured by this blog post.

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About the European Cloud Partnership

From Report from the European Cloud Partnership Steering Board meeting of 4 July 2013 in Tallinn, 12 August 2013: “On 27 September 2012 the Commission adopted the European Cloud Strategy in the form of a Communication entitled “Unleashing the Potential of Cloud Computing in Europe”, in which it announced the intention to set up a European Cloud Partnership (ECP). Under the guidance of the Steering Board, the ECP brings together public authorities and industry consortia to advance the objectives of the Strategy towards a digital single market for cloud computing. On the 4th of July 2013, the ECP organised its second full Steering Board meeting in Tallinn.” The full report can be downloaded here. Report European Cloud Partnership Steering Board Meeting July 2013

Some thoughts on the two topics discussed:

PRISM: No big surprise to see that on the agenda. Hope is that  a high-profile activity like the ECP is not engaging in the just too frequent FUD-type of discussions but will support their strategy and implementation with solid social and technology research.

Cloud Standards: From the report “There is a need to identify minimal standards, based on existing best practices. These should focus on public sector needs, but the private sector is free to adopt these if it sees a benefit to doing so. Past experiences with the GSM standards are recalled, where a strong and forced EU level standardisation push made the EU a global leader in mobile technology.”  –  To draw a line between GSM and Cloud Computing looks just too typical for the European ICT sector, which is mostly known for their Telco incumbents. It would be interesting to learn more about the actual motivations behind this bold statement. So far, the Cloud Computing sector proves that standards are not needed. Also, since this statement is from a Telefonica representative, this needs to be viewed in the context of Telco standardization efforts beyond communication systems, WAC, GSMA, Parlay/Parlay-X, RCSe to name a few, all of which still have to prove real impact on the Internet.

Cloud for Europe: Is this any connected to the FI-PPP, and most importantly FI-WARE? Or the EGI Federated Cloud? The document refers to a presentation of Helix Nebula but given the fact that Cloud For Europe is a new project (a large one, IP with 20+ partners from 11 EU countries), one risk fragmentation across the meanwhile many different European Cloud research and development activities.

ICCLab Presents OCCI @ Future Internet Assembly

The ICCLab presented on the latest developments (PDF) in the Open Cloud Computing Interface at the Future Internet Assembly in Dublin. The session was organised by Cloud4SOA and the main theme was MultiCloud. In this regard, OCCI figures in many projects striving from this including EGI FedCloud, CompatibleOne and BonFire. In the presentation some future points of work that will be carried out in Mobile Cloud Networking, which took the audience’s interest.

ICCLab Invited to European Commission Cloud Expert Group

The ICCLab (Andy and Thomas) is invited to participate to the next meeting of the Cloud Expert Group which will take place in October 29-30, 2012 in Brussels.

The previous work of the Cloud Expert Group (“Advances in Clouds”) has clearly shown that Cloud Computing still requires research and development work in multiple domains (e.g. software & services, networks, security, complex systems, etc.).

The aim of the workshop is to refine the research topics identified in the above mentioned report, provide more details and develop a roadmap with priorities and actions.

To better shape the workshop discussions, position papers (no longer than 2 pages) are submitted on any of the following topics:

  • Data management, communications & networks
  • Resource description & usage, resource management
  • Programmability & usability
  • Federation, interoperability, portability
  • Security
  • Business and cost models, expertise & usability

Andy will provide a position paper on cloud standards, federation, and interoperability from the ICCLab’s perspective. The slides will be online after the event.

ICCLabs Present on OCCI at OWF/CloudCamp Paris

ICCLab is just back from Open World Forum in Paris after being part of the organisation of the “Open Cloud, Open Standards” session that was run in conjunction with CloudCamp. It was an excellent session and Simon Wardley was the master of MC’ing. There was a number of presentations to kick off the day and that was followed by very interesting and energetic round table discussions. The ICCLab presented on OCCI and you can see that presentation here (PDF here):

The topics of discussion during the day revolved around:

  • “Does the Cloud need standards?”
  • “Government role in Cloud, beneficial or dangerous intervention?”
  • “What do we mean by standards anyway – specification or reference model?”
  • “Whose standards – de jeure or defacto?”
  • “Should those standards be open?”
  • “Is there any such thing as an open API or are all APIs open?”

Stay tuned for an upcoming blog post where we discuss the out comes of the session.

Upcoming Events: Swiss OpenStack User Group and OCCI Working Group Meetings

In coordination with ZH-Geeks, the ICCLab will be hosting the very first Swiss OpenStack user group meeting on the 15th of Novemeber. In addition to Tim Bell there will be a number of other speakers who will present on various OpenStack topics. Tim Bell runs the infrastructure team at CERN where they run a very large installation of OpenStack. Tim is also a member of the OpenStack foundation management board and one of the main drivers of the OpenStack-based IaaS needed to analyse the 25PB of data a year from the LHC. If anyone wants to submit a lightening talk (talk with slides of no more than 10 mins) on their work with OpenStack please let Andy Edmonds know. We would encourage as many of you to attend! Please sign up at the following site.

Also, on the 13th of Novemeber the Open Cloud Computing Interface working group will be having a day long meeting to discuss and improve the current specification. This event as an excellent means to influence one of the most prominent cloud standards today. If you wish to attend please get in touch with Andy Edmonds and also add your name to the list of attendees.

European Commission Cloud Announcements

While the [ICCLab presented](http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/events/cf/ictpd12/document.cfm?doc_id=23258) at the [ICT Proposer’s Day in Warsaw](http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/events/ictproposersday/2012/index_en.htm), a very interesting announcement was made in relation to Europe’s strategy on Cloud Computing.

On Thursday, the vice president of the European commission, [Neelie Kroes](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neelie_Kroes), announced [further details](http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/12/1025&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en) on the European Cloud Partnership.

From the ICCLab’s perspective this is a very exciting announcement as it underlines some of our key research themes that investigated here, namely [dependability and interoperability](http://www.cloudcomp.ch/research/foundation/themes/). Also encouraging is [the reuse](http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/cloudcomputing/docs/com/swd_com_cloud.pdf) of much good work carried out in the area of standardisation by [the SIENA initiative](www.sienainitiative.eu) as quoted in the “[Staff Working Paper](http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/cloudcomputing/docs/com/swd_com_cloud.pdf)”.

In the announcement on Thursday arguments for why Europe should be engaging more with cloud were given. For many in the ICT domain these are well known but what is more interesting in this announcement and the accompanying report are the set of 3 key actions ([from the accompanying ECP document](http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/cloudcomputing/docs/com/com_cloud.pdf)):

1. Cutting through the Jungle of Standards
– Promote trusted and reliable cloud offerings by tasking ETSI to coordinate with stakeholders in a transparent and open way to identify by 2013 a detailed map of the necessary standards (inter alia for security, interoperability, data portability and reversibility).
– Enhance trust in cloud computing services by recognising at EU-level technical specifications in the field of information and communication technologies for the protection of personal information in accordance with the new Regulation on European Standardisation.
– Work with the support of ENISA and other relevant bodies to assist the development of EU-wide voluntary certification schemes in the area of cloud computing (including as regards data protection) and establish a list of such schemes by 2014.
– Address the environmental challenges of increased cloud use by agreeing, with industry, harmonised metrics for the energy consumption, water consumption and carbon emissions of cloud services by 2014.
2. Safe and Fair Contract Terms and Conditions
– Develop with stakeholders model terms for cloud computing service level agreements for contracts between cloud providers and professional cloud users, taking into account the developing EU acquis in this field.
– In line with the Communication on a Common European Sales Law29, propose to consumers and small firms European model contract terms and conditions for those issues that fall within the Common European Sales Law proposal. The aim is to standardise key contract terms and conditions, providing best practice contract terms for cloud services on aspects related with the supply of “digital content”.
– Task an expert group set up for this purpose and including industry to identify before the end of 2013 safe and fair contract terms and conditions for consumers and small firms, and on the basis of a similar optional instrument approach, for those cloud-related issues that lie beyond the Common European Sales Law .
– Facilitate Europe’s participation in the global growth of cloud computing by: reviewing standard contractual clauses applicable to transfer of personal data to third countries and adapting them, as needed, to cloud services; and by calling upon national data protection authorities to approve Binding Corporate Rules for cloud providers.30
– Work with industry to agree a code of conduct for cloud computing providers to support a uniform application of data protection rules which may be submitted to the Article 29 Working Party for endorsement in order to ensure legal certainty and coherence between the code of conduct and EU law.

3. Establishing a European Cloud Partnership to drive innovation and growth from the public sector.
– identify public sector cloud requirements; develop specifications for IT procurement and procure reference implementations to demonstrate conformance and performance.33
– Advance towards joint procurement of cloud computing services by public bodies based on the emerging common user requirements.
– Set up and execute other actions requiring coordination with stakeholders as described in this document.

This annoucement was coupled with the news that the EU commission will supporting its cloud strategy with [160B EUR to the EU GDP by 2020](http://techcrunch.com/2012/09/27/europe-shoots-for-the-clouds-ec-lays-out-new-cloud-strategy-to-add-e160b-to-eu-gdp-by-2020/).

# What is the ECP?
The ECP is a coming together of public authorities and industry, both Cloud buyers and suppliers. It consists of 3 main phases:

1. Common requirements for cloud technology procurement. Typical examples here include standards and security.
2. The delivery of proof-of-concepts for the common requirements
3. Creation of reference implementations

It was originally outlined [in a speech](http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/12/38&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en) by Neelie Kroes in late January.

Automating OCCI Installations

As part of the work here in the ICCLab not only are we active in the [OCCI working group](http://www.occi-wg.org) but also contributing not only [contributing to its implementation on OpenStack](https://github.com/tmetsch/occi-os) but we also make available our work on automating the install of OpenStack. We recently made a contribution to the [puppetlab-nova project](https://github.com/puppetlabs/puppetlabs-nova). This [contribution allows](https://github.com/puppetlabs/puppetlabs-nova/pull/150) users of the nova module to specify the APIs to enable in nova, as well as enabling the OCCI if specified.

The contribution, [submitted as a pull request](https://github.com/puppetlabs/puppetlabs-nova/pull/150) can be used in the following fashion:

[gist id=3778884]

The `nova::api` class declared above enables all the usual OpenStack APIs as well as the OCCI interface. Where the OCCI API is enabled, puppet then will look after installing the necessary components.

In Quest of the “Open Cloud” (updated)

A remarkable and wonderful feature of Zurich is its vivid computer science and technology community. Hardly any week passes without an interesting event around new innovations and technologies, like the Internet of Things, novel programming languages (Go, etc), security, and of course Cloud Computing technologies (e.g. MongoDB) [footnote1]. Particularly interesting – from our / ICCLab perspective – is the ZhGeeks (@zhgeeks) community, run by one of our fellow technology and cloud evangelists Muharem. Last weeks Zhgeeks meeting was about Open Cloud and no less prominent figure than Samj was about to update us on the Open Cloud Initiative. A truly inspiring talk  (download slides).

Notwithstanding of Sam’s comprehensive and sound introduction into the world of “Cloud Openness” (from an OCI perspective) I can’t help but have to ask myself – hellya, what is this Open Cloud thing?

So let’s see what the universal oracle has to tell [footnote2]. And here we go. “Open Clouds” all over; what a surprise. So again, what is it then?

Indeed, this is an interesting question if you bet on CC, either as adopter, contributor, or simply user. As Sam summed it up, “Open Cloud is about technology openness such that the market can drive it’s evolution”, reflecting the OCI definition and principles:

Open Cloud must meet the following requirements:

  • Open Formats: All user data and metadata must be represented in Open Standard formats.
  • Open Interfaces: All functionality must be exposed by way of Open Standard interfaces.”

Having sacrificed several hours of sleep for studying the OpenStack Foundation bylaws in order to understand the implications on OpenStack’s future (you my call it “openness”) – see my earlier blog post Open- or NotSo-OpenStack? – I was wondering whether OCI’s definition also poses open governance requirements onto OSS Cloud Computing projects, like OpenStack, CloudStack, Eucalyptus and the likes, but this is seemingly not the case.

Red Hat’s Open Cloud definition goes further by not only requesting open source, standards, and interfaces, but also incorporating “technical governance” into “The Open Cloud: Red Hat’s Perspective”. It says “An Open Cloud …

Has a viable, independent community. Open source isn’t just about the code, its license, and how it can be used and extended. At least as important is the community associated with the code and how it’s governed. Realizing the collaborative potential of open source and the innovation it can deliver to everyone means having the structures and organization in place to tap it fully.”

Another popular reference is the Open Cloud Manifesto, which defines a set of open cloud principles, similar to OCI but focuses further on features of an open cloud and the defining community, in particular by embracing the fact that Cloud Computing is a community effort,  that different stakeholder groups exist, and that these ought to collaborate to avoid fragmentation.

“6. Cloud computing standards organizations, advocacy groups, and communities should work together and stay coordinated, making sure that efforts do not conflict or overlap.”
RackSpace, notably one of the founding members of OpenStack, has too an opinion; “Open Cloud Computing : History of Open Source Coding and the Open Cloud” – in this post exclusively linked to Open Source Software.
Alex Williams from TechCruch “spend some time with the technologists at CloudOpen – the Linux Foundation’s first cloud only event” and summarizes in his article “To sum it up: if VMworld is about the data center then CloudOpen is about the software” and continues “Over the past few days, I’ve tried to crystallize the conversation to some extent. Here is my take:
  • An open cloud has open APIs.
  • An open cloud has a developer community that collaborates on developing the cloud infrastructure or platform environment.
  • An open cloud has people who have deep experience in running open source projects.
  • An open cloud gives users the rights to move data as wished.
  • An open cloud is federated — you can run your apps and data across multiple cloud environments.
  • An open cloud does not require an IT administrator to provision and manage.
  • An open cloud does not require new hardware.
  • An open cloud is not a rat’s nest of licenses.
  • An open cloud is not a proprietary, new age mainframe.
  • An open cloud is not washed with marketing.
  • An open cloud can be forked.
  • An open cloud has full view into the infrastructure environment.
  • An open cloud is not hosted, legacy software
David Linthicum seems to share equal motivations which led me to this blog post. He tells in his post “InfoWorld: The ‘open cloud’ is getting awfully confusing”. The article does not go into detail but nicely summarizes the status quo:
“If you’re looking at adopting an “open cloud” technology, you have complex work ahead. Assessing their value is complicated by the fact that many of the vendors are less than a two years old and have a minimal install base that can provide insight into fit, issues, and value.

As with any significant IT endeavor, you need to do your homework, understand your requirements, and make sure to test this stuff well before you use it in your enterprise. At some point, the “open cloud” market will normalize, and when that happens, you hope your seat will still be available in the ensuing game of musical chairs.”

 from Gigao picks up this thread, citing Alex and David, for his “Prediction: More Cloud Confusion Ahead“.

Alex Williams from TechCruch cites the CloudOpen conference as trigge and here goes a summary of the discussions, 10 Insights from Linux Leaders in the Open Cloud.

Richard Kaufmann, chief technologist, HP Cloud Services, July 3, 2012, “HP Public Cloud Aims to Boost OpenStack Customer Base.”There are two important APIs out there, one is Amazon’s and the other is OpenStack. And OpenStack has Amazon compatibility. HP will continue to support those Amazon compatibility layers; We’re not trying to lead on a position about what customers should do with APIs… I (personally) believe there should be a popular cloud API for IaaS and it should not be Amazon. It could be anything else but it can’t float from above. It has to be based on popular usage.

Lew Moorman, Rackspace, July 10, 2012, “Open Cloud Key to Modern Networking.”Some people seem to think that APIs are the cloud and one thing that made the cloud so revolutionary is it’s programmatically accessible by API.  But (Amazon) S3 is a really complex distributed system. The issue with a model that says “clone Amazon” is that, unless you have the core technology underneath it, you can’t have a cloud…

OpenStack is really setting out to build an open alternative from end to end. They say we’re going to do networking, not just set out to copy Amazon. We need to really innovate and build a visionary system that can power the future of computing. Amazon, VMware and Microsoft don’t have all the answers.

Christopher Brown, CTO, Opscode, July 17, 2012, “Chef Offers a Recipe for the Open Source Cloud.”The open cloud lies both below and above the waterline of the API. At the beginning we all wanted to treat the cloud as an easier way to get the compute units that looked like the old thing we used to get buying a physical machine. But that’s not actually true. It’s not the same thing and it requires a different design underneath of a common substrate. If you look above the water line at the consumer, the way you build applications, the way they scale, etc., designing the cloud and for the cloud are different than what is now legacy.

Mark Hinkle, senior director of cloud computing community, Citrix July 24, 2012, “Citrix’s Hinkle Proposes Linux Model for an Open Source Cloud.It’s first and foremost that the orchestration platform is open source. The data you store within the cloud is open to you as the end user in a format you can manipulate easily and it’s easily transferable. The API is also open and clearly documented.

Ross Turk, vice president of community, InkTank, July 31, 2012, “An Open Source Storage Solution for the Enterprise.It can mean a cloud stack that is built on open source like OpenStack or CloudStack and that reflects the economic and community advantages behind building something that’s akin to what Amazon has done, but built on commodity hardware. It’s an open alternative to AWS. Another way to think of the open cloud doesn’t exclude AWS. It’s having cloud services with standardized APIs so applications written for one cloud can work on another cloud.

Imad Sousou, director of Intel’s Open Source Technology Center, Aug. 7, 2012, “Open Cloud Standards will Emerge With More Collaboration.”The open cloud must meet these requirements:  Use Open Formats, where all user data and metadata must be represented in Open Standard formats. Use Open Interfaces, where functionality must be exposed through Open Standard interfaces. In addition, in the open cloud, various open source technologies should be available to build the right solutions efficiently, and to drive innovation. These would include software stack and tools, such as the hypervisors or operating systems, middleware, such as databases and web servers, web content management systems, and development tools and languages. Such open source-based software solutions would reinforce interoperability of the open cloud.

Kyle MacDonald, vice president of cloud, Canonical, Aug. 14, 2012, “Canonical: Making the Open Cloud Seamless for Users.True power comes when the users can move from one cloud service to another. That’s the state of nirvana. The cool word is ‘interoperability.’ …  It will be almost required that if you’re a cloud service you publish an API that’s clear. And eventually there will be a common API or it becomes so simple the minor differences won’t be a big deal to end users. And then partners who define the services can use those same open source technologies and provide a good service.

Alan Clark, director of industry initiatives, emerging standards and open source, SUSE Aug. 21, 2012, “SUSE Aims for One-Click Enterprise Deployment on OpenStack.Enterprise IT must deliver the most efficient, scalable and flexible services possible. The open cloud provides that through the ability to have a flexible infrastructure, quick and easy deployment, service management and complete life cycle management. We’re working with partners — many are part of these open source projects – to build this together and that builds interoperability. It’s a collaboration of ideas as well as code. It accelerates bringing a solution to market that works across all the different partners.

Angel Diaz, vice president of software standards and cloud, IBM Aug. 28, 2012, “3 Projects Creating User-Driven Standards for the Open Cloud.” Our clients who use technology have a heterogeneous environment. They need to take existing systems, extend them and deal with it and they don’t want to be locked into a singe vendor solution. That is how (IBM) defines an open cloud: where end users want to have these points of interoperability.

Joe Brockmeier, open source cloud computing evangelist, Citrix Sept. 6, 2012, “Defining the Open Cloud.Some folks will argue that a cloud service or offering is open if it has open APIs and open standards.  For my money, the best definition of the open cloud came from Red Hat’s Scott Crenshaw: It enables portability across clouds; Has a pluggable, extensible, and open API; Lets you deploy to your choice of infrastructure; It’s unencumbered by patents and other IP restrictions; It’s based on open standards; It has a viable and independent community; It is open source. Having open APIs is necessary, but it’s not enough. If you depend on one vendor to provide your cloud, and you can’t pull it in-house for any reason, it’s just not open.

So are we any smarter after this, only little I fear. There are common themes, like open source, standards, interfaces, royalty-freeness from a technology ankle and freedom of choice and cross-cloud portability on the other. And perhaps the community should indeed take this one Open Cloud Manifesto principle on “open cloud community collaboration” to heart and drive consolidation; instead of contributing to one of those fundamental innovation hindrances that they try to avoid, that is fragmentation. The CloudOpen conference was one great step into this direction and the Google Hangout on OpenClouds (on Youtube) by Ben Kepes (Ben Kepes on G+) will hopefully be another way to continue this important discussion.

ANNEX

Open Cloud InitiativeOpen Cloud Principles (OCP)

Interoperability (the ability to exchange and use information) between cloud computing products and services is required for unfettered competition between vendors and unrestricted choice for users.

Users must be able to come (no barriers to entry) and go (no barriers to exit) regardless of who they are (no discrimination) and what systems they use (technological neutrality).

Supporting vendors must therefore cooperate on standards, implementing those that exist (where applicable) and collaborating via an open process to develop those that don’t, with a view to competing fairly on quality.
Open Cloud must meet the following requirements:
  • Open Formats: All user data and metadata must be represented in Open Standard formats.
  • Open Interfaces: All functionality must be exposed by way of Open Standard interfaces.

Open Standards must meet the following requirements:

  • Copyrights: The standard must be documented in all its details, published and both accessible and [re]usable free of charge.
  • Patents: Any patents possibly present on [parts of] the standard must be irrevocably made available on a royalty-free basis.
  • Trademarks: Any trademarks possibly present on identifier(s) must be used for non-discriminatory enforcement of compliance only.
  • Implementations: There must be multiple full, faithful, independent and interoperable implementations (for both client and server where applicable) and at least one such implementation must be licensed in its entirety under an Open Source Initiative (OSI) approved license or placed into the public domain.

Red Hat : An open cloud has the following characteristics:

  • Is open source. This allows adopters to control their particular implementation and doesn’t restrict them to the technology and business roadmap of a specific vendor. It lets them build and manage clouds that put them in control of their own destiny and provides them with visibility into the technology on which they’re basing their business. It provides them with the flexibility to run the workloads of their choice, including proprietary ones, in their cloud. Open source also lets them collaborate with other communities and companies to help drive innovation in the areas that are important to them.
  • Has a viable, independent community. Open source isn’t just about the code, its license, and how it can be used and extended. At least as important is the community associated with the code and how it’s governed. Realizing the collaborative potential of open source and the innovation it can deliver to everyone means having the structures and organization in place to tap it fully.
  • Is based on open standards, or protocols and formats that are moving toward standardization and that are independent of vendor and platform. Standardization in the sense of “official” cloud standards blessed by standards bodies is still in early days. That said, approaches to interoperability that aren’t under the control of individual vendors and that aren’t tied to specific platforms offer important flexibility. This allows the API specification to evolve beyond implementation constraints and creates the opportunity for communities and organizations to develop variants that meet their individual technical and commercial requirements.
  • Freedom to use IP.  Recent history has repeatedly shown that there are few guarantees that intellectual property (IP) assets will remain accessible to all from one day to the next.  To have confidence that you will continue to enjoy access to IP assets that you depend on under the terms that you depend on, permission needs to be given in ways that make that technology open and accessible to the user.  So-called “de facto standards,” which are often “standards” only insofar as they are promoted by a large vendor, often fail this test.
  • Is deployable on your choice of infrastructure. Hybrid cloud management should provide an additional layer of abstraction above virtualization, physical servers, storage, networking, and public cloud providers. This implies, or indeed requires, that cloud management be independent of virtualization and other foundational technologies. This is a fundamental reason that cloud is different from virtualization management and a fundamental enabler of hybrid clouds that span physical servers, multiple virtualization platforms, and a wide range of public cloud providers including top public clouds.
  • Is pluggable and extensible with an open API. This lets users add features, providers, and technologies from a variety of vendors or other sources. Critically, the API itself cannot be under the control of a specific vendor or tied to a specific implementation but must be under the auspices of a third-party organization that allows for contributions and extensions in an open and transparent manner. Deltacloud, an API that abstracts the differences between clouds, provides a good example. It is under the auspices of the Apache Software Foundation and is neither a Red Hat-controlled project nor tied to a particular implementation of cloud management.
  • Enables portability to other clouds. Implicit in a cloud approach that provides support for heterogeneous infrastructure is that investments made in developing for an open cloud must be portable to other such clouds. Portability takes a variety of forms including programming languages and frameworks, data, and the applications themselves. If you develop an application for one cloud, you shouldn’t need to rewrite it in a different language or use different APIs to move it somewhere else. Furthermore, a consistent runtime environment across clouds means that retesting and requalification isn’t needed every time you want to redeploy.

Open Cloud Manifesto : Open Cloud Principles

Rather, as cloud computing matures, there are several key principles that must be followed to ensure the cloud is open and delivers the choice, flexibility and agility organizations demand:
1. Cloud providers must work together to ensure that the challenges to cloud adoption (security, integration, portability, interoperability, governance/management, metering/monitoring) are addressed through open collaboration and the appropriate use of standards.
2. Cloud providers must not use their market position to lock customers into heir particular platforms and limit their choice of providers.
3. Cloud providers must use and adopt existing standards wherever appropriate. The IT industry has invested heavily in existing standards and standards organizations; there is no need to duplicate or reinvent them.
4. When new standards (or adjustments to existing standards) are needed, we must be judicious and pragmatic to avoid creating too many standards. We must ensure that standards promote innovation and do not inhibit it.
5. Any community effort around the open cloud should be driven by customer needs, not merely the technical needs of cloud providers, and should be tested or verified against real customer requirements.
6. Cloud computing standards organizations, advocacy groups, and communities should work together and stay coordinated, making sure that efforts do not conflict or overlap.
Leaders of the Open Cloud at OpenCloud

Richard Kaufmann, chief technologist, HP Cloud Services
July 3, 2012, “HP Public Cloud Aims to Boost OpenStack Customer Base.” 

There are two important APIs out there, one is Amazon’s and the other is OpenStack. And OpenStack has Amazon compatibility. HP will continue to support those Amazon compatibility layers; We’re not trying to lead on a position about what customers should do with APIs… I (personally) believe there should be a popular cloud API for IaaS and it should not be Amazon. It could be anything else but it can’t float from above. It has to be based on popular usage.

Lew Moorman, Rackspace
July 10, 2012, “Open Cloud Key to Modern Networking.”

Some people seem to think that APIs are the cloud and one thing that made the cloud so revolutionary is it’s programmatically accessible by API.  But (Amazon) S3 is a really complex distributed system. The issue with a model that says “clone Amazon” is that, unless you have the core technology underneath it, you can’t have a cloud…

OpenStack is really setting out to build an open alternative from end to end. They say we’re going to do networking, not just set out to copy Amazon. We need to really innovate and build a visionary system that can power the future of computing. Amazon, VMware and Microsoft don’t have all the answers.

Christopher Brown, CTO, Opscode
July 17, 2012, “Chef Offers a Recipe for the Open Source Cloud.” 

The open cloud lies both below and above the waterline of the API. At the beginning we all wanted to treat the cloud as an easier way to get the compute units that looked like the old thing we used to get buying a physical machine. But that’s not actually true. It’s not the same thing and it requires a different design underneath of a common substrate. If you look above the water line at the consumer, the way you build applications, the way they scale, etc., designing the cloud and for the cloud are different than what is now legacy.

Mark Hinkle, senior director of cloud computing community, Citrix
July 24, 2012, “Citrix’s Hinkle Proposes Linux Model for an Open Source Cloud.” 

It’s first and foremost that the orchestration platform is open source. The data you store within the cloud is open to you as the end user in a format you can manipulate easily and it’s easily transferable. The API is also open and clearly documented.

Ross Turk, vice president of community, InkTank
July 31, 2012, “An Open Source Storage Solution for the Enterprise.” 

It can mean a cloud stack that is built on open source like OpenStack or CloudStack and that reflects the economic and community advantages behind building something that’s akin to what Amazon has done, but built on commodity hardware. It’s an open alternative to AWS.

Another way to think of the open cloud doesn’t exclude AWS. It’s having cloud services with standardized APIs so applications written for one cloud can work on another cloud.

Imad Sousou, director of Intel’s Open Source Technology Center
Aug. 7, 2012, “Open Cloud Standards will Emerge With More Collaboration.”

The open cloud must meet these requirements:  Use Open Formats, where all user data and metadata must be represented in Open Standard formats. Use Open Interfaces, where functionality must be exposed through Open Standard interfaces.

In addition, in the open cloud, various open source technologies should be available to build the right solutions efficiently, and to drive innovation. These would include software stack and tools, such as the hypervisors or operating systems, middleware, such as databases and web servers, web content management systems, and development tools and languages. Such open source-based software solutions would reinforce interoperability of the open cloud.

Kyle MacDonald, vice president of cloud, Canonical
Aug. 14, 2012, “Canonical: Making the Open Cloud Seamless for Users.” 

True power comes when the users can move from one cloud service to another. That’s the state of nirvana. The cool word is ‘interoperability.’ …  It will be almost required that if you’re a cloud service you publish an API that’s clear. And eventually there will be a common API or it becomes so simple the minor differences won’t be a big deal to end users. And then partners who define the services can use those same open source technologies and provide a good service.

Alan Clark, director of industry initiatives, emerging standards and open source, SUSE
Aug. 21, 2012, “SUSE Aims for One-Click Enterprise Deployment on OpenStack.” 

Enterprise IT must deliver the most efficient, scalable and flexible services possible. The open cloud provides that through the ability to have a flexible infrastructure, quick and easy deployment, service management and complete life cycle management.

We’re working with partners — many are part of these open source projects – to build this together and that builds interoperability. It’s a collaboration of ideas as well as code. It accelerates bringing a solution to market that works across all the different partners.

Angel Diaz, vice president of software standards and cloud, IBM
Aug. 28, 2012, “3 Projects Creating User-Driven Standards for the Open Cloud.” 

Our clients who use technology have a heterogeneous environment. They need to take existing systems, extend them and deal with it and they don’t want to be locked into a singe vendor solution. That is how (IBM) defines an open cloud: where end users want to have these points of interoperability.

Joe Brockmeier, open source cloud computing evangelist, Citrix
Sept. 6, 2012, “Defining the Open Cloud.” 

Some folks will argue that a cloud service or offering is open if it has open APIs and open standards.  For my money, the best definition of the open cloud came from Red Hat’s Scott Crenshaw: It enables portability across clouds; Has a pluggable, extensible, and open API; Lets you deploy to your choice of infrastructure; It’s unencumbered by patents and other IP restrictions; It’s based on open standards; It has a viable and independent community; It is open source.

Having open APIs is necessary, but it’s not enough. If you depend on one vendor to provide your cloud, and you can’t pull it in-house for any reason, it’s just not open.

FOOTNOTES

[footnote1]  This is symptom and cause, concurrently, for the Zurich’s rise as the European Silicon Valley, as some already claim, based on its flourishing high-tech start-up scene that enjoys a wide array of support and attention (e.g. Zurich Start-Up PortalStartwerk PortalZurich Start-up Weekend, Zurich StartupsStartup.ch).

[footnote2] Apologies to one of my previous employers. I really didn’t mean to mention the evil.