Author: Sandro Brunner

ICCLab @ 10th KuVS Expert-Talks NGSDP

Last Monday, the 16. March 2015 the 10th expert-talks on Next Generation Service Delivery Plattforms (NGSDP) was held at the Fraunhofer FOKUS Institute in Berlin.

The event was about “Virtualization Impacts on Service Delivery Infrastructures – SDN, SNF and Clouds”. There were a wide range of intersting talks covering topics like NFV Orcherstration, Optimization Models for Virtual Mobile Core Network Functions Embedding, Prototyping New Concepts Beyond 4G – The Open5GCore and many more. After every talk there was a short round of questions and a longer pannel with engaging discussions.

The ICCLab was there presenting on the topic of Cloud-Native Application Design, explaining the necessary characteristics of a Cloud-Native Application and giving some hints on the designing process.

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Cloud-Native Applications Seed Project: Migration-Process Part 1

As stated in a previous blog-post, at the beginning of this year we started with the project of migrating the open-source application Zurmo CRM into the cloud. In this first blog-post on the progress of this process we will describe our initial plan, show the basic components of a cloud-optimized application and talk about whether to stick with the monolithic architecture style of Zurmo or migrate it to a microservices architecture. We’ll furthermore discuss the first steps we took in migrating Zurmo to the cloud and how we plan to continue.


  • We use the term cloud-optimized to describe an application which has the same characteristics as a cloud-native applicaton but is the result of a migration process.
  • The basic components of a cloud-optimized application are: Application Core, Enabling Systems, Monitoring- and Management-Systems. All of which have to be scalable and resilient.
  • A monolithic architecture style is best suited for smaller applications (little functionality / low number of developers) resp. when starting to build a new application.
  • A microservices architecture style is best suited for large applications (lots of functionality / high number of developers). Its benefits are less of a technical nature but more of the way it helps to manage the development and deployment of applications.
  • We decided to stick with the monolithic architecture. The first change we did to the application was to horizontally scale the web server with the use of a load balancer and make the application core stateless.

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CNA Seed Project: Evaluation of Application to Migrate

At the beginning of this year the Cloud-Native Applications Seed Project (short: CNA Seed Project) was launched as described in this blog-post.

The goal of the CNA Seed Project is to gain experience in what it takes to migrate an application into the cloud. So at the heart of this project lies the application that will be migrated.

We set ourselves the following parameters in chosing a suitable application:

  1. Must be open source
  2. Should be a business application
  3. Should be a common used type of application

There were a lot of different types of business application types to choose from:

  • Customer Relation Management (CRM)
  • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
  • Document Management Systems (DMS)
  • Ticketing Systems
  • Content Management Software (CMS)

In the end we mainly focused on CRM applications because they are a common type of business application, is not too complex and a lot of open source solutions are available.

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KIARA InfiniBand Functionality Overview

This blog post gives an overview of the InfiniBand functionality that is offered by the transport stack of KIARA. KIARA is a new and advanced middleware and a part of the FI-WARE project which is in turn part of the very large European FI-PPP programme. Several team members of the ICCLab are currently working on the implementation of this middleware.

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Cloud-Native Applications

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Since Amazon started offering cloud services (AWS) in 2006, cloud computing in all its forms became evermore popular and has steadily matured since. A lot of experience has been collected and today a high number of companies are running their applications in the cloud either for themselves or to offer services to their customers. The basic characteristics of this paradigm1 offer capabilities and possibilities to software applications that were unthinkable before and are the reason why cloud computing was able to establish itself the way it did.

What is a Cloud-Native Application?

In a nutshell, a cloud-native application (CNA) is a distributed application that runs on a cloud infrastructure (irrespective of infrastructure or platform level) and is in its core scalable and resilient as well as adapted to its dynamic and volatile environment. These core requirements are derived from the essential characteristics that every cloud infrastructure must by definition possess, and from user expectations. It is of course possible to run an application in the cloud that doesn’t meet all those criteria. In that case it would be described as a cloud-aware or cloud-ready application instead of a cloud-native application. Through a carefully cloud-native application design based on composed stateful and stateless microservices, the hosting characteristics can be exploited so that scalability and elasticity do not translate into significantly higher cost.


  • The CNA initiative provides architecture and design guidelines for cloud-native applications, based on lessons-learned of existing applications and by taking advantage of best-practices (Cloud-Application Architecture Patterns).
  • Evaluate microservice technology mappings, related to container compositions, but also other forms of microservice implementations.
  • Provide recommendations for operation of cloud native applications (Continuous Delivery, Scaling, Monitoring, Incident Management,…)
  • Provide economic guidelines on how to operate cloud native applications (feasibility, service model (mix), microservice stacks, containers, …)
  • Investigate in, develop and establish a set of open source technologies, tools and services to build, operate and leverage state of the art cloud-native applications.
  • Support SMEs to build their own cloud-native solutions or reengineer and migrate existing applications to the cloud.
  • Ensure that all new applications developed within the SPLab and the ICCLab are cloud-native.

Relevance to current and future markets

– Business impact

  • Using cloud infrastructures (IaaS/PaaS) it is possible to prototype and test new business ideas quickly and without spending a lot of money up-front.
  • An application running on a cloud infrastructure – if designed in a cloud-native way – only ever uses as many resources as needed. This avoids under- or over- provisioning of resources and ensures cost-savings.
  • Developing software with services offered by cloud infrastructure and -platform providers enables even a small team to create highly scalable applications serving a high number of customers.
  • Developing cloud-native applications with a microservice architecture style allows for shorter development-cycles which reduces the time to adapt to customer feedback, new customer requirements and changes in the market.

– Correlation to industry forecasts

  • Cloud-native applications are tightly bound to cloud computing resp. to IaaS and PaaS since these technologies are used to develop and host applications and in the best case these applications are cloud native. So wherever these technologies stand in the Gartner Hype-Cycle Cloud-Native Applications can be thought of as being at the same stage.
  • The Cloud-Native Computing Foundation ( and other industry groups are formed to shape the evolution of technologies that are container packaged, dynamically scheduled and microservices oriented.

  • Container composition languages and tools are on the rise. A careful evaluation and assessment of technologies, lock-ins, opportunities is required. The CNA initiative brings sufficient academic rigor to afford long-term perspectives on these trends.

Relevant Standards and Articles


Cloud-native applications are typically designed as distributed applications with a shared-nothing architecture composed of autonomous and stateless services that can horizontally scale and communicate asynchronously via message queues. The focus lies on the scalability and resilience of an application. The architecture style and current state of the art of how to design such applications is described with the term Microservices. While this is in no way the only way to architect cloud-native applications it is the current state of the art.

Generic CNA Architecture

The following architecture has been initially analysed, refined and realised by the SPLab CNA initiative team with a business application (Zurmo CRM) based on the CoreOS/fleet stack as well as on Kubernetes.

More recent works include a cloud-native document management architecture with stateful and stateless microservices implemented as composed containers with Docker-Compose, Vamp and Kubernetes.

Articles and Publications

G. Toffetti, S. Brunner, M. Blöchlinger, J. Spillner, T. M. Bohnert: Self-managing cloud-native applications: design, implementation and experience. FGCS special issue on Cloud Incident Management, 2016.

S. Brunner, M. Blöchlinger, G. Toffetti, J. Spillner, T. M. Bohnert, “Experimental Evaluation of the Cloud-Native Application Design”, 4th International Workshop on Clouds and (eScience) Application Management (CloudAM), Limassol, Cyprus, December 2015. (slides; author version; IEEExplore/ACM DL: to appear)

Blog Posts

Note: Latest posts are at the bottom.


Open Source Software


Josef Spillner: josef.spillner(at)


1. On-Demand Self-Service, Broad Network Access, Resource Pooling, Rapid Elasticity and Measured Service as defined in  NIST Definition of Cloud Computing

InfiniBand: An Introduction + Simple IB verbs program with RDMA Write

This blogpost aims to give you a short introduction to InfiniBand. At the end you should have a rough overview over the technology, much of its terminology and on how to program a very simple RDMA application with IB verbs.

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OpenStack Grizzly Multi-Node Installation with Stackforge Puppet-Modules on CentOS 6.4

This blog post describes the installation of OpenStack Grizzly with help of the Stackforge Puppet-Modules on CentOS 6.4 – with the use of network namespaces. The setup consists of a controller/network and a compute node. Of course additional compute nodes can later be added as needed. Continue reading

New ICCLab Testbed at Equinix Datacenter

The ICCLab has now a new testbed for their work/research in the Cloud-Computing field at no other location than the datacenters of Equinix – one of our collaboration partners and generous donor of the rackspace – in Zurich.
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RTI Connext DDS : Setup and HelloWorld Example (Windows/Eclipse/Java)

This blog post aims to give you an overview over what RTI Connext DDS is, how it works and in which context it is used here at the ICCLab. Furthermore it shows you how to set it up and implement a simple HelloWorld-like application. It is not intended to explain details or specific concepts. For this you are kindly referred to the very abundant and well written documentation which comes with the product or can be found online.

The source code of the example can be found here –> HelloWorld_Source

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